Chiastic Structures
The Old Testament
Chiastic Parallels
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2 Hear, O heavens! Give heed, O earth!
Jehovah has spoken: I have reared sons, brought them up,
but they have revolted against me.


3 The ox knows its owner,
the ass its master’s stall, but Israel does not know;
my people are insensible.


4 Alas, a nation astray,
a people weighed down by sin, the offspring of wrongdoers,
perverse children:
they have forsaken Jehovah,
they have spurned the Holy One of Israel, they have lapsed into apostasy.